curriculum is the core of the field of education and have an influence on the entire educational activity. Given the importance of curriculum in education and human life, the curriculum can not be done arbitrarily. Curriculum requires strong foundations, based on the results of the depth of thought and research. Curriculum that is not based on a solid foundation can be fatal to the failure of the education itself. By itself, it will berkibat also to the failure of the process of human development.
In this case, Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata (1997) suggests four major cornerstone in the development of the curriculum, namely: (1) philosophical, (2) psychological, (3) socio-cultural, and (4) science and technology .. For more details , the following section describes the four premises.
Philosophy plays an important role in the development kuikulum. Just as in the Philosophy of Education, we are introduced to the various schools of philosophy, such as: Perenialisme, essentialism, eksistesialisme, Progressivism, and rekonstruktivisme. In curriculum development was always grounded in the flow - the flow of a particular philosophy, so that will color the concept and implementation of the curriculum developed. With reference to the idea Yulaelawati Ella (2003), the below-described on the content of each of the schools of philosophy, related to curriculum development.
a.Perenialisme more emphasis on immortality, ideals, truth and beauty of the cultural heritage and social impacts certain. Knowledge is considered more important and less attention to day-to-day activities. Education who hold this ideology emphasizes the absolute truth, universal truths that are not tied to place and time. The flow is more oriented to the past.
b.Essensialisme stressed the importance of cultural inheritance and the provision of knowledge and skills to students in order to become useful members of society. Math, science and other subjects considered basics curriculum precious substance to live in the community. Similarly Perenialisme, essesialisme also more oriented to the past.
c.Eksistensialisme emphasis on the individual as the source of knowledge about life and meaning. To understand life one must understand oneself. This flow question: how do I live in the world? What is the experience?
d.Progresivisme emphasizes the importance of serving the individual differences, learner-centered, experiential learning, and process variations. Progressivism is the basis for the development of active learners.
e.Rekonstruktivisme a further elaboration of the flow of progressivism. In rekonstruktivisme, the future of human civilization is emphasized. In addition to the emphasis on individual differences such as progressivism, rekonstruktivisme further emphasis on problem solving, critical thinking, and the like. This stream will be questioned as to what to think critically, solve problems, and do something? Adherents of this school emphasizes the learning outcomes of the process.
Philosophy flow Perenialisme, essentialism, existentialism is a school of philosophy that underlies the development of subject-Academic Model Curriculum. Meanwhile, the philosophy of Progressivism provide the basis for development of Private Education Curriculum Model. Meanwhile, many rekonstruktivisme philosophy applied in the development Interactional Model Curriculum.
Each school of philosophy certainly has its drawbacks and advantages. Therefore, the practice of curriculum development, implementation philosophies tend to be in eklektif for more compromise and accommodate a variety of interests related to education. However today, in some countries, and especially in Indonesia, seems to be a shift in the foundation in the development of the curriculum, with a focus on philosophy rekonstruktivisme.
Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata (1997) suggests that there are at least two underlying psychology curriculum development: (1) developmental psychology and (2) studying psychology. Developmental psychology is the study of individual behavior with regard to its development. In the studied developmental psychology about the nature of development, phasing of development, developmental aspects, individual development tasks, as well as other matters related to the development of individuals, all of which can be used as a basis for consideration and curriculum development. Learning psychology is the study of individual behavior in the context of learning. Psychology study examines the nature of learning and theories of learning, as well as various aspects of the behavior of other individuals in the study, all of which can be used as a consideration as well as the underlying curriculum development.
Still regarding the psychological basis, Ella Yulaelawati describe psychological theories underlying the Competency-Based Curriculum. Citing thought Spencer, Ella Yulaelawati sense of competence suggests that competence is "the fundamental characteristics of someone who is a causal relationship to the reference criteria or effective and best performance in the work of a situation".
Furthermore, also raised about the 5 types of competencies, namely:
a.motif; something that one has to think consistently or desire to perform an action.
b.bawaan, ie the physical characteristics that consistently respond to various situations or information.
c.konsep themselves, ie behavior, values or image someone;
d.pengetahuan, ie information which is owned by someone, and
e.keterampilan, namely the ability to perform physical and mental tasks.
The five competencies have practical implications for human resource planning or education. Skills and knowledge tend to be more visible on the surface characteristics of a person, while the concept of self, innate and hidden motives more and more deeply, and is the center of one's personality. Surface Competence (knowledge and skills) are more easily developed. Training is appropriate to ensure this capability. In contrast, innate competence and motives much more difficult to be recognized and developed.
In the context of Competency-Based Curriculum, E. Mulyasa (2002) highlighted the different aspects and characteristics of learners, He explained that there are at least five different and learner characteristics to consider in the Competency-Based Curriculum, namely: (1) differences in the level of intelligence, (2) creative differences, (3) differences in physical disability, (4) the needs of learners, and (5) growth and cognitive development.
The curriculum can be viewed as a design education. As a design, curriculum implementation and determining educational outcomes. We understand that education is an effort to prepare students to go into the community. Education is not just for education per se, but provide sufficient knowledge, skills and values to live, work and achieve further development in the community.
Learners come from the community, getting both formal and informal education in communities and geared to people's lives as well. Community life, with all the characteristics and cultural richness as well as a foundation and reference point for education.
With education, we did not expect turn up man - a man who became alienated from their communities, but rather through education is expected to better understand and be able to build a life masyakatnya. Therefore, the purpose, content, and process of education must be tailored to the needs, conditions, characteristics, wealth and development in masyakarakat.
Every society each has its own socio-cultural systems that govern the life pattern and the pattern of relationships between members of the public. One important aspect of socio-cultural systems are the order of the values that govern the way the Bohemian and behaved citizens. These values can be derived from religious, cultural, political or other facets of life.
In line with the development of society, the values that exist in the community also helped develop so that requires every citizen to make changes and adjustment to the demands of the development going on around the community.
Israel Scheffer (Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata, 1997) suggests that through the study of past human civilizations knew, participated in civilization now and create the future of civilization.
Thus, the curriculum developed should consider, respond to, and based on the social - cultural in a society, whether in the context of local, national and global levels.
4.Landasan Science and Technology
At first, science and technology of the human remains relatively modest, but since the Middle Ages had great development. The discoveries of new theories continue to this day and likely will continue growing future
The human mind has been able to reach before things is something that is not possible. In ancient times, people probably would have thought it impossible that humans could set foot on the Moon, but thanks to advances in the field of Science and Technology in the mid-20th century, Apollo plane successfully landed on the Moon and Neil Armstrong was the first to successfully set foot on the Moon.
Rapid progress in the world of information and technology in the last two decades has been an effect on human civilization beyond the reach of human thought before. This influence is seen in the shift in the social, economic and political needs a new balance between the values, ideas and ways of life prevailing in global and local contexts.
Moreover, in today's knowledge age, it takes a knowledgeable society through lifelong learning with high quality standards. The nature of the knowledge and skills that must be mastered very diverse and sophisticated society, so that the required curriculum, along with meta-cognitive skills and competence to think and learn how to learn (learning to learn) to access, select and assess knowledge, and overcome siatuasi ambiguous and adaptable to the uncertainty ..
Developments in the field of science and technology, especially in the field of transport and communications have been able to change the order of human life. Therefore, the curriculum should be designed to accommodate and anticipate the pace of development of science and technology, so that students can keep pace and simultaneously develop science and technology for the benefit and survival of human